Home CBSE Syllabus Biotechnology Class XI Syllabus

Biotechnology Class XI Syllabus


Exam Structure

Units  Topics  Marks 
Unit – I  Biotechnology: An overview
Unit – II  Molecules of Life 20 
Unit – III  Genetics and Molecular Biology 20 
Unit – IV Cells and Organisms 25
Practicals   30
  Total 100

Unit-I: Biotechnology: An overview

Chapter 1: Introduction to Biotechnology

Historical Perspectives; Production Strategies in Biotechnology; Quality Control; Product Safety; Good Manufacturing Practices; Good Laboratory Practices; Intellectual Property; Public Perception; Global market; Biotechnology in India and Global Trends

Unit-II: Molecules of Life

Chapter 1: Biomolecules: Building Blocks

Building Blocks of Carbohydrates – Sugars and Their Derivatives; Building Blocks of Proteins – Amino Acids; Building Blocks of Lipids – Simple Fatty Acids, Sphingosine, Glycerol and Cholesterol; Building Blocks of Nucleic Acids – Nucleotides; Biochemical Transformations

Chapter 2: Macromolecules: Structure & Function

Carbohydrates – The Energy Givers; Proteins – The Performers; Enzymes – The Catalysts; Lipids and Biomembranes – The Barriers; Nucleic Acids – The Managers

Unit-III: Genetics and Molecular Biology

Chapter-1: Concepts of Genetics

Historical Perspective, Multiple Alleles, Linkage and Crossing Over, Genetic Mapping, Gene Interaction, Sex-Linked Inheritance, Extranuclear Inheritance, Qauntitative Inheritance, Genes at the Population Level

Chapter-2: Genes and Genomes: Structure and Function

Discovery of DNA as Genetic Material, DNA Replication, Fine Structure of Genes, From Gene to Protein, Transcription – The Basic Process, Genetic Code, Translation, Regulation of Gene Expression, Mutations, DNA Repair, Human Genetic Disorders, Genome Organization

Unit IV: Cells and Organisms

Chapter 1: The Basic Unit of Life

Cell Structure and Components, Tissues and Organs, Stem Cells, Biodiversity, Organization of Life.

Chapter 2: Cell Growth and Development

Cell Division, Cell Cycle, Cell Communication, Nutrition, Gaseous Exchange, Internal Transport, Maintaining the Internal Environment, Reproduction, In Vitro Fertilization, Animal and Plant Development, Immune Response in Animals, Programmed Cell Death, Defense Mechanisms in Plants.


  1. Recording Practical results & safety rules in the laboratory
  2. Preparation of buffers and pH determination
  3. Sterilization techniques
  4. Preparation of bacterial growth medium
  5. Determination of bacterial growth curve
  6. Cell counting
  7. Isolation of milk protein (casein)
  8. Estimation of whey protein by biuret method
  9. Assaying the enzyme acid phosphate
  10. Estimation of blood glucose by enzymatic & glucometer method (GOD/POD)
  11. Study of various stages of mitosis and calculation of mitotic index
  12. Preparation of karyotype
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