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CLASS: X NCERT (CBSE) Chemistry: For Class 10 – Carbon and its Compounds



Carbon and its Compounds

• Study of the compounds of carbon is organic chemistry. They form the basis of living organisms and the things around us.

• An unique property of carbon is ‘catenation’. It is the property of forming bonds with the atoms of the same element. The catenation property of carbon is the basis of organic chemistry.

• Carbon is tetravalent in nature and forms the single, double and triple covalent bonds to combine with elements hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, nitrogen and chlorine to form various types of compounds

• Isomers are compounds having same molecular formula but different structural formula. Carbon compounds display isomerism.

• An atom or a group of atoms that determine the characteristic properties of a carbon compound is called Functional group

• Functional groups such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, carboxylic acids give characteristic properties to these compounds

• Compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen, as their elements are known as Hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are a parent group of carbon compounds with many sub functional groups.

• Carbon compounds are known to exist as linear chains, branched chains and cyclic rings

• Nomenclature is the system of assigning a proper name to a particular organic compound on the basis of certain rules

• Combustion, oxidation, addition and substitution reactions are the important reactions of carbon compounds

• Carbon compounds are major sources of our fuels

• Ethanol and ethanoic acid are two important compounds used in our daily life

• Ethyl alcohol (commonly referred to as alcohol), may serve as source of energy in small quantities. But in large amounts it affects the nervous system. Methyl alcohol is poisonous and can cause blindness and be fatal.

• Soaps are sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty (carboxylic) acids containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups that emulsifies dirt to remove it.

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