Geography Class XI Syllabus
|Part/Unit||Topic or Chapter||Marks|
|Part A||Fundamentals of Physical Geography||35|
|Unit-1||Geography as a discipline|
|Unit-5||Water (Oceans) – OTBA|
|Unit-6||Life on the Earth|
|Map and Diagram||5|
|Part B||India – Physical Environment||35|
|Unit-9||Climate, vegetation and soil|
|Unit-10||Natural hazards and Disasters|
|Map and Diagram||5|
|Part C||Practical Work||30|
|Unit-1||Fundamentals of Maps||10|
|Unit-2||Topographic and Weather Maps||15|
|Practical Record Book and Viva||5|
Part A: Fundamentals of Physical Geography
Unit-1: Geography as a Discipline
- Geography as an integrating discipline, as a science of spatial attributes.
- Branches of Geography; PhysicalGeography and Human Geography.
- Scope and Career Options
Unit-2: The Earth
- Origin and evolution of the earth; Interior of the earth.
- Wegener’s continental drift theory and plate tectonics.
- Earthquakes and volcanoes: causes, types and effects.
- Rocks: major types of rocks and their characteristics.
- Landforms and their evolution.
- Geomorphic processes: weathering, mass wasting, erosion and deposition; soil-formation.
Unit 4: Climate
- Atmosphere- composition and structure;elements of weather and climate.
- Insolation-angle of incidence and distribution; heat budget of the earth-heating and cooling of atmosphere (conduction, convection, terrestrial radiation and advection); temperature- factors controlling temperature; distribution of temperature-horizontal and vertical; inversion of temperature.
- Pressure-pressure belts; winds-planetary, seasonal and local; air masses and fronts; tropical and extratropical cyclones.
- Precipitation-evaporation; condensation-dew, frost,fog, mist and cloud; rainfall-types and world distribution.
- World climates-classification (Koeppen and Thornthwaite), Global warming and climatic changes.
- Climate and Global Concerns.
Unit 5: Hydrosphere
- Basics of Oceanography
- Oceans – distribution of temperature and salinity.
- Movements of ocean water-waves, tides and currents; submarine reliefs.
- Ocean resources and pollution.
Unit 6: Biosphere
- Biosphere – importance of plants and other organisms; biodiversity and conservation; ecosystem and ecological balance.
Map work on identification of features based on 1 to 6 units on the outline/Physical/Political map of the world.
Part – B: India – Physical Environment
- Location, space relations, India’s place in the world.
- Structure and Relief; Physiographic Divisions.
- Drainage systems: Concept of river basins, Watershed; the Himalayan and the Peninsular rivers.
Unit-9: Climate, Vegetation and Soil
- Weather and climate – spatial and temporal distribution of temperature, pressure winds and rainfall, Indian monsoon: mechanism, onset and withdrawal, variability of rainfalls: spatial and temporal; use of weather charts; Climatic types (Koeppen).
- Natural vegetation-forest types and distribution; wild life; conservation; biosphere reserves.
- Soils – major types (ICAR’s classification) and their distribution, soil degradation and conservation.
Unit-10: Hazards and Disasters: Causes, Consequences and Management
- Floods, Cloudbursts
- Droughts: types and impact
- Earthquakes and Tsunami
- Cyclones: features and impact
Map Work of features based on above units for locating and labelling on the Outline/Political/Physical map of India.
Part – C: Practical Work
Unit-1: Fundamentals of Maps
- Geo spatial data, Concept of Geographicaldata matrix; Point, line, area data.
- Maps – types; scales-types; construction of simple linear scale, measuring distance; finding direction and use of symbols.
- Map projection – Latitude, longitude and time, typology, construction and properties of projection: Conical with one standard parallel and Mercator’s projection. (only two projections)
Unit 2: Topographic and Weather Maps
- Study of topographic maps (1:50,000 or 1:25,000 Survey of India maps); contour cross section and identification of landforms-slopes, hills, valleys, waterfall, cliffs; distribution of settlements.
- Aerial Photographs: Types and Geometry-vertical aerial photographs; difference between maps and aerial photographs; photo scale determination. Identification of physical and cultural features.
- Satellite imageries, stages in remote sensing data-acquisition, platform and sensors and data products, (photographic and digital).
- Use of weather instruments: thermometer, wet and dry-bulb thermometer, barometer, wind vane, rain gauge.